When wall ties need replacing, the amount of work necessary to do a proper job in restoring the structural integrity of your house can seem overwhelming. It need not be so and, to help you understand the process better, Twistfix has created a handy 6-part guide that explains everything. Below, you can find out about:
For more than century, cavity walls have been the predominant design choice for houses built in the UK. The structure comprises two thin walls, an internal leaf and an external leaf, with a space between them. Steel strips or wires, known as wall ties, cavity ties or brick ties, connect the two walls, allowing them to work cohesively together as a single unit. Adequately tied, a cavity wall is just as sturdy as a solid wall.
The purpose of a cavity wall is to protect the inside of the house from damp, improve its resistance to heat loss, and reduce the transmission of sound.
The wall ties work to secure the protective outer wall to the load-bearing inner structure, transfer tension and compression loads, accommodate differential movement between the walls and to maintain these function in the event of a fire.
The use of mild steel ties, usually with a protective layer of zinc or bitumen, was customary in house construction up to 1981. Since then, the dominant choice of material is stainless steel, which offers greater longevity and reduced thermal conductivity.
A building will need to have its wall ties replaced if they fail in function. Wall tie failure may be the result of substandard construction or a consequence of degradation as the building ages.
Irrespective of the cause of cavity tie failure, installing a remedial wall tie replacement system will firmly secure the outer wall to the main structure of the building. Re-tying the walls will restore and maintain stability, allowing applied loads to be shared and transferred safely.
The different compositions of buildings, including the type of wall tie, mean that visible indications of problems with wall ties can vary. The two main signs to look out for are:
Rust occupies a significantly higher volume of space than the original metal. As corrosion develops, the accumulation of brittle, bulky iron oxide layers causes ties made of strips of steel, such as fishtail ties, to expand to several times the thickness of the original steel. When repeated along an entire row of steel strip ties, this expansion can create irresistible forces that combine to lift and split the wall, causing a series of horizontal cracks.
These wall-weakening fractures first appear at the upper level of the walls where the weight of the brickwork is least. Often the ruptures will occur along several mortar bed joints incorporating the rusting ties; typically, positioned 4-8 brick courses apart.
Ties made from thin wire, instead of steel strip, usually lack the mass to produce these symptomatic cracks and so can ultimately erode with no visual signs of a problem, until the wall stars to buckle or bulge.
On rare occasions, wall tie failure can be a contributory factor to the collapse of weakened external walls under gales or storm-force winds. The wall areas most vulnerable to high winds are those where there are long spans of brickwork where there are no structural returns, such as the brick panels located between window openings and at triangular gable apex walls. So be safe; if you discover any symptoms of wall tie failure get the walls checked out by a professional.
A wall tie inspection is usually carried out by a surveyor, who will collect and record data about the construction of the wall and the condition of its ties. The surveyor uses information collected from the survey to form an objective assessment as to the service longevity of the existing wall-ties..
Verify the condition and density of the ties.
Identify the construction, visual faults and exposure to wind loads:
The surveyor categorises tie condition, on a scale ranging from 1 to 9 using Table 2 of BRE Digest 401, which designates a classification based on visual corrosion levels. Table 4 of BRE Digest 401, shows both the ‘minimum’ and the ‘best’ measures for the degree of corrosion and the surveyor reports the advice to the house-owner.
At level 1 (no corrosion present), the Digest suggests carrying out a further inspection within the following ten years; at level 9 (heavily corroded or failed), its recommendation is for immediate action by retrofitting a wall tie replacement system.
If the BRE grading and remedial action system call for a wall tie replacement program, an experienced specialist wall tie contractor or a structural engineer can design a comprehensive remedial tying and testing package that is best suited to the specific building.
Information about which kind of replacement wall tie is appropriate for use in a general construction type is available from the decision tree in BRE Digest 329. Discovering the most suitable retrofit tie for a specific structure will involve exploring those that have been independently tested, such as wall ties with CE Marking or BBA approvals.
The design package will include:
Helical wall ties are work-hardened stainless-steel wires that have been cold-rolled into a cruciform shape before being twisted. They are used to anchor the outer wall of a building to its inner structure and are available in different lengths to suit all cavity widths.
Lightweight blows, delivered by a setting tool in an SDS hammer drill, drive the helical wall-tie into a small pre-formed pilot hole, causing the tie to corkscrew into the masonry following the angle of its helix. The work-hardened helical fins undercut threads into brickwork as they advance into the pilot hole, providing a mechanical interlock anchorage that grips the masonry on both sides of the cavity. The helix design provides fortuitous multiple drip points to prevent the possibility of water passing across the tie.
Helical wall-tie systems are quick and easy to fix; they withstand tension and compression loads and are suitable for use in brick, block and concrete structures including buildings requiring a fire rating.
Mechanical wall ties are stainless steel part-threaded threaded studs having an expanding mechanism at either end. The expansion mechanisms typically include a radially expanding sleeve held firmly between nuts and washers. Several sizes are available to suit the most common cavity widths.
A mechanically expanding wall-tie fits into a pre-drilled clearance hole. Turning the torque-nut in a clockwise direction causes the tie-bar to rotate, squashing the neoprene sleeve between the nuts and washers at the far end of the tie. The compressed neoprene sleeve expands radially, tightly gripping the wall of the hole in the internal masonry wall.
At a factory set torque level, the part-threaded torque nut works its way down the bar, radially expanding the neoprene sleeve at the near end of the stud to engage and grip the external wall. Mechanical ties have a small neoprene drip-ring placed in the central portion of the bar; this ring helps to guard against the passage of water across the tie-bar.
Resin-fix wall ties are pins made from stainless steel; they offer sufficient deformation to create a good bond with resin or cementitious brick adhesives. The deformed connectors may take the form of simple course-threaded studs, helically twisted bars or even stainless steel rebars.
A blast of compressed air removes all dust and detritus from a pre-formed clearance hole before injecting resin into the inner-leaf bore and pushing the tie-bar into the adhesive. Once the resin has set at the inner wall connection, dispensing more of the bonding agent around the section of the tie buried in the external wall completes the anchoring process.
Stainless steel remedial wall ties themselves are relatively inexpensive, but the cost of a wall tie replacement scheme depends on numerous factors. These include:
A general builder, or specialist contractor, or even a competent DIY handyman, will find most replacement tie systems quick and easy to fit. It is possible to save a lot of money by carrying out the work yourself, but it is essential to follow all instructions correctly and to verify performance through testing.
Twistfix supplies a professional collection of wall tie replacement kits, and we invite you to use the dedicated wall tie calculator on our website which will determine how many retrofit ties you will need for a given area of an existing wall. You can then browse our selection of replacement options to find a high-quality solution at a competitive price. If in doubt about any aspect of wall tie replacement, give our expert team a call for clear-cut, competent advice.